Kuhli Loach – A Complete Guide – Care, Diet, Facts

Looking for a friendly fish to add to your aquarium? The kind of fish that makes a great tank companion? You might want to consider the Kuhli Loach, a curious scavenger fish that will spend nights roaming the floor of your aquarium.

The Kuhli Loach (Pangio Kuhlii) is a calm bottom-dwelling fish with a tendency to explore all the nooks and crannies of your tank. They can be shy if left alone, and will take advantage of their eel-like bodies to burrow and hide beneath the cover of any sort of vegetation.

This is the type of fish that may be best suited for those with experience keeping an aquarium. While they aren’t particularly high maintenance, they do require a decent amount of attention and care.

If you are interested in getting one or more Kuhli Loaches and want to learn more about their characteristics, their habitat, and what goes into caring for them, look no further! Keep reading and find out all there is to know about this peculiar fish.


Getting to Know Your Kuhli Loach

The Kuhli Loach goes by several names. It has been called the Coolie Loach, the Leopard Loach, the Leopard Eel, Prickly Eye, the Striped Loach, the Kuhl’s Loach, and the Cinnamon Loach. The fish belongs to the Cobitidae family and is a part of the genus Pangio.

The genus Pangio contains a great number of different species that are found primarily in Southeast Asia. The Kuhli Loach in particular is found in places like Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo.

They live in slow moving hill streams and forest canals that twist and turn through densely vegetated areas. The water they inhabit is typically shallow and warm with a muddy bottom.

The Kuhli Loach is classified as a demersal fish, or a bottom feeder. They are bottom-dwelling scavengers, meaning they wait for food to fall from the top of the water to the stream’s bed and then search through the sediment for any scraps. In a tank environment, this same scavenging quality makes them a great cleaner fish.

Being an omnivore, their diet largely consists of larvae, small crustaceans, plant material from the river beds, and whatever else sinks to the bottom of the water.

You will notice that the Kuhli Loach is much more active at night than during the daytime. They spend nights scavenging the bottom of the tank for food, searching through every last crevice for scraps.

If you get a Kuhli Loach, it is recommended that you keep at least 3 of them at a time in your tank. They are best kept in groups of 6. If you decide to keep only a single one in the tank, it is much more likely to be shy and hide away wherever it can the majority of the time.

When sufficiently cared for, they have a lifespan of at least 10 years. This is only an average, and in many cases they have been known to live even longer.

As far as fish go, they are on the less expensive side. A single Kuhli Loach will typically run you between $3 and $5. Be careful when you are buying them, as they can easily be confused for other species within the genus Pangio. Make sure to be specific in what you are asking for so you don’t end up with some other species, such as a Pangio Cuneovirgata, a Pangio Myersi, or a Pangio Semicincta.


The Kuhli Loach has a slender, serpent-like appearance. They whip their bodies back and forth over the riverbed—or the floor of the tank—when scavenging for food and eating.

On average, they come out to about 4 inches in size. They grow to a maximum of 5 inches in the wild, and tend to be closer to 3 inches when kept in a tank.

10 to 15 thick, dark brown lines extend vertically across their bodies. In between these lines, their bodies are usually colored a pale yellow. The undersides of the Kuhli Loach are an even brighter shade of fleshy pink.

Around their mouths, you will find four pairs of barbels. Barbels, from the latin word barbula, meaning “little beard”, are small sensory organs that help scavengers like the Kuhli Loach locate food in muddy waters.

They have two small fins just behind their heads and a dorsal fin that is located far back near the tail end of their body.

Interestingly enough, the head of the Kuhli Loach lacks any sort of scales. Their bodies themselves have only very slight scales.

Since scales serve as a kind of armor that protect fish from predators, diseases, and other dangers, a lack of them can prove to be a problem. In the case of the Kuhli Loach, a lack of scales exposes it to different kinds of harmful parasites and diseases. This is one reason why it is recommended that Kuhli Loaches are handled by more experienced aquarists rather than beginners.

Tank Specifications

Kuhli Loaches should be placed in already established aquariums, and not freshly set up tanks. They live in freshwater, and the water in their tank should be continually cleaned and well oxygenated.

The absolute minimum tank size for a single Kuhli Loach is 20 gallons. However, since they should live in groups, you will likely need even more space. Add 3 to 5 extra gallons to the tank for every additional Kuhli Loach.

The bottom layer of the tank, or substrate, should be a very soft sediment that consists of small particles. The best substrate materials for a Kuhli Loach are usually sand or a finely ground gravel.

One important element to keep in mind when setting up a tank for them is to consider the kind of vegetation and habitat you want to create. These are the type of fish that love little hideaways, crevices, and caves to explore and nestle inside.

Therefore, it is definitely a good idea to include plenty of cover and vegetative litter in your aquarium. Try to mirror the natural habitat of the Kuhli Loach. Fill your tank with aquatic plants like cryptocoryne, java ferns, moss, loose leaf litter, big rocks, and driftwood. Include any other kind of cover where they can comfortably hide.

Keep these more technical facts in mind as well when setting up a tank. The tank’s water should be kept soft, between 0 and 5 dGH, with just a bit of acidity. Keep the pH level between 5.5 and 6.5. The tank shouldn’t be too bright or too dark, but at a shade right in the middle.

They like steady water movement with a turnover of 10 times per hour. Also try to perform a 30% water change on a weekly basis. When you make the water change, vacuum the sediment in order to suck up any leftover food or waste.

Remember that the Kuhli Loach is native to warm waters in Southeast Asia, a tropical part of the world. So be sure to keep the temperature of the water fairly high. The water should stay between 73 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit, but the mid-to-high 70s is going to make an ideal base temperature.

Be thoughtful when buying equipment for your tank. Kuhli Loaches are masters at getting stuck in weird spots, and can get trapped in a filter if you aren’t careful. Make sure to keep a firm cover over both the filter’s outlet and the top of the tank itself. Otherwise, when they get active at night, the fish could very well leap right out of the tank.


Since they are natural scavengers in the wild, Kuhli Loaches will eat almost anything you put in the tank. However, the base of their diet should mostly consist of high quality flakes and pellets. You should purchase flakes and pellets that easily sink to the bottom of the tank, since they will only begin consuming the food once it has reached the bottom.

The Kuhli Loach is an omnivorous fish and will eat frozen or live food, as well as plant material. It is best to keep pellets and flakes as the base while also adding some diversity to their diet by including things like thawed frozen bloodworm or some algae wafers.

This is the type of fish that loves meat based foods. Items like tubifex worms and mosquito larvae can be given to them as goodies to supplement their normal diet.

If you are keeping a Kuhli Loach with other fish that occupy the upper region of your aquarium, it is especially important that you use pellets heavy enough to reach the bottom. Otherwise, the upper-dwelling fish can intercept all the food on its way down and your Kuhli Loach will be left hungry.

Make sure to feed them several times per day. Only put as much food in the aquarium as they can eat in roughly 2 to 3 minutes.

Caring for Your Kuhli Loach

Their small body scales and the lack of scales on their head make Kuhli Loaches particularly susceptible to diseases. They are, additionally, sensitive to the types of medications typically used to treat disease.

Although you should place them in an already well established tank rather than an immature one, take caution when doing so. Drastic condition or water temperature changes can result in stress and sickness.

Also be sure that anything new you add to the tank has been thoroughly examined and cleaned. Additions to your aquarium always have the potential to carry disease and infect the current inhabitants.

The most common disease that Kuhli Loaches suffer from is Ich, which is short for Ichthyophthirius. It is also known as “white spot disease”, and is a parasite that will most likely attack the Kuhli Loach before any other kind of fish.

They are sensitive to the medication used to treat Ich, so it might be a good idea to start by administering less than the recommended amount and seeing how they manage it.

Another common disease that Kuhli Loaches suffer from is called “skinny disease”, which is also caused by parasites. It may be hard to tell whether your fish is sick, especially if they continue to eat and behave normally. If your Kuhli Loach maintains a healthy diet and is still somehow losing weight, this is a pretty good sign of a parasite, so keep an eye out.

If you spot these diseases in their early phases, it will be possible to contain them and limit the spread to one or two fish. If you notice that one or more fish are diseased, remove them immediately and relocate them to a separate hospital tank.

The best way to prevent disease in your fish is by properly maintaining the tank and feeding them a healthy diet. Always keep in mind their natural habitat, and try to replicate these conditions. Putting them in conditions that vary too far from their natural habitat will result in stress, and stressed fish are much more likely to get sick.

Ideal Tank Mates

Though they are not a school fish, the Kuhli Loach is much more likely to come out during the day when kept with companions. It is not recommended to keep a single one, because it will likely hide almost all the time and you will rarely see it. Get 3 of these fish at the minimum, although 6 or more is really the optimal amount.

If you are going to keep one or more Kuhli Loaches with other types of fish, then other small, peaceful fish make ideal companions. Consider fish like Corydoras, Rasboras, Otocinclus Catfish, and White Cloud Mountain Minnows.

Pelagic fish that will inhabit the upper layers of your aquarium also make a great complement to the bottom-dwelling Kuhli Loach. Consider some non-aggressive species of gouramis to serve as companions in the tank.

When considering tank mates, you will definitely want to avoid any aggressive or bully-like fish. Kuhli Loaches are a passive and peaceful fish and will run the risk of being eaten if kept with a more aggressive companion.

Do not keep them with larger territorial fish like Cichlids or Aroanas. Avoid well-known aggressors like Tiger Barbs and mature Angelfish.

Try to avoid keeping your Kuhli Loaches with molluscs or crustaceans that the fish could potentially eat. Small snails are particularly prone to becoming a meal for these fish.


Kuhli Loaches have been successfully bred in aquariums before, although it is not known to be an especially easy feat. Their breeding habits are a bit of a mystery and so getting them to breed can definitely be a difficult and time-consuming task.

First, you will need a breeding tank. Maintain low water levels and keep the light dim. The hardness of the water should be lowered to a pH of about 6.5.

When reproducing, the female Kuhli Loach scatters bright green eggs that attach to the undersides of floating plants. The eggs will stick to these plants in little clusters, like a nest of bubbles. Include plenty of plants and other vegetation in the tank so that the females are able to lay their eggs—the more, the better.

Females already tend to be a bit larger than their male counterparts, but they will be even bigger and heavier when carrying eggs. In some instances, you might even be able to see the eggs through the female’s skin.

Once you see that the female has laid the eggs, remove the adults and place them in a separate tank. This is because the adults may try to eat the eggs if left alone with them.

The baby fish should hatch about 24 hours after the eggs are laid. When they have grown to the point where they are able to feed themselves, they are known as fry.

Feed the fry with a high-quality Infusoria or brine shrimp. You can also go to your local pet store and purchase prepared fry food until they begin to mature.

Make sure that you are very careful about maintaining the tank conditions and the water quality when trying to breed Kuhli Loaches. As mentioned before, it can be a very difficult task, but it is made easier when you work to closely replicate the natural habitat of these fish.

If they are kept in a group and surrounded by their own species, they are more likely to feel comfortable and reproduce. Keep in mind that Kuhli Loaches do not reach sexual maturity until they are 2 years old, so you will have to wait for a time before trying to breed them.

Final Notes

The Kuhli Loach is a calm bottom-dwelling fish most active during nighttime. When left alone, they will find crafty spots to hide away from your view. However, when kept with a group of 6 or more, they tend to get out in the open and be much more active and social.

Even though they require some care and attention, they are a really fun and peculiar fish to keep in your aquarium.

If you are interested in getting a Kuhli Loach, go online or visit your local pet store. They should be readily available for purchase.

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